Vorrei ricordare Margaret Roberts Thatcher con le parole che pronunciò a un summit dell’Unione Europea a Roma 23 anni fa: espose molto lucidamente i motivi per cui si sarebbe opposta all’adozione della Moneta Unica da parte del Regno Unito prevedendo gran parte dei problemi economici e politici che stiamo affrontando adesso (disoccupazione, mancanza di meccanismi di aggiustamento, pressioni politiche della Germania, etc.).
E’ vero: molti economisti dell’epoca si espressero contro l’adozione di una moneta unica in una zona valutaria non ottimale, ma pochi politici ebbero il coraggio di opporsi a un progetto corale da cui sembrava derivare ogni bene. Niente male per la figlia di un droghiere. (il discorso completo qui)
I agree entirely with my right hon. Friend. It would do just that. It would also mean that there would have to be enormous transfers of money from one country to another. It would cost us a great deal of money. One reason why some of the poorer countries want it is that they would get those big transfers of money. We are trying to contest that. If we have a single currency or a locked currency, the differences come out substantially in unemployment or vast movements of people from one country to another. Many people who talk about a single currency have never considered its full implications.
When the Delors proposals for economic and monetary union came out, it was said immediately by my right hon. Friend [ Nigel Lawson ] the then Chancellor of the Exchequer that this was not really about monetary policy at all but about a back door to a federal Europe, taking many democratic powers away from democratically elected bodies and giving them to non-elected bodies. I believe fervently that that is true, which is why I shall have nothing to do with their definition of economic and monetary union.
I think that it is wrong to think that all the Twelve have similar votes or influence in these matters. I think that some in Germany are backing the scheme because they know that the dominant voice, the predominant voice, on any central bank would be the German voice. If we did not retain our national identities in Europe, the dominant people in Europe would be German. The way to balance out the different views of Europe, as we have traditionally done throughout history, is by retaining our national identity.